Graduated from the Faculty of Russian Language and Literature of the Azerbaijan Pedagogical Institute of Russian Language and Literature and the Faculty of English Philology of the Azerbaijan University of Languages with honors. Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor, Honored Teacher.
In 1978-1981 worked as a teacher in secondary schools in Shamkir. In 1981-2000 was a Senior lecturer, associated professor at the Baku Slavic University. In 2002-2004 worked as Dean of the Faculty of Western languages at the Western University. In 2000-2020 was a Professor of the Department of Literary Theory, Head of the Department of European Languages, Vice-rector for International Relations of the Baku Slavic University. In 2006 worked at the Institute for Women's and Gender Studies of the Michigan University. In 2012-2013 was a Chairperson of the Racism and Xenophobia Sub-Committee at the PACE. In 2014-2015 was as Chairperson of the Gender Equality Sub-Committee at the PACE. In 2015-2017 was a General rapporteur on violence against women, Political coordinator of the Parliamentary Network Women Free from Violence of the PACE. In 2016-2018 was a Chair of Migration, Refugees and Displaced Persons Committee of PACE and member of PACE Bureau. In 2015-2020 took post of a Deputy Chair of the Committee on Family, Women and Children issues of the Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan. In 2018-2020 was a Head of the delegation of Azerbaijan to the EuroNest Parliamentary Assembly.
Member of a New Azerbaijan Party.
Member of the Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan for Fourth, Fifth and Sixth convocations.
On March 10, 2020 was elected as a Chairperson of the Milli Majlis of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Head of the delegations of Azerbaijan to the Non-Aligned Movement Parliamentary Network (NAM PN), Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of the Member-Nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (IPA CIS), Parliamentary Assembly of the Economic Cooperation Organization (PAECO), Parliamentary Assembly of the Association of South East Nations (AIPA). In 2016, Prof. Dr Sahiba Gafarova was conferred by the order of H.E. Mr. Ilham Aliyev, President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the honorary title of “Honored teacher” for her contribution to the development of education.